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Linking Selenium Sources to Ecosystems: Local and Global Perspectives

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Links of interest   |   Contacts for further information

Articles

General
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The Phosphoria Formation: A Model For Forecasting Global Selenium Sources in the Environment


Presser, T.S. and H.M. Ohlendorf, 1987, Biogoechemical Cycling of Selenium in the San Joaquin Valley, California

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'The Kesterson Effect' by T.S. Presser

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Ch. 18: Selenium Poisoning of Fish and Wildlife in Nature: Lessons from Twelve Real-World Examples

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Ch.18: Contaminants in Drainage Water and Avian Risk Thresholds, by J.P. Skorupa, U.S. Fish and ...

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Ch. 10: Mass Balance Approach to Selenium Cycling Through the San Joaquin Valley: From Source...

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Bioaccumulation of Selenium from Natural Geologic Sources in Western States and Its Potential consequences. T.S. Presser, M.S. Sylvester, W.H. Low.

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Luoma, S.N. and Rainbow, P.S. (2005) Why is metal bioaccumulation so variable? Biodynamics as a unifying concept. Environmental Science & Technology39(7):1921-1931.

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Stewart, AR, Luoma, SN, Schlekat, CE, Doblin, MA and Hieb, KA. (2004) Food web pathway determines how selenium affects aquatic ecosystems: A San Francisco Bay case study. Environmental Science & Technology 38(17):4519-4526.

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Remediation and Bioremediation of Selenium Contaminated Waters...

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Geologic Origin and Pathways of Selenium from the California Coast Ranges to the West-Central San Joaquin Valley

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Beware Missing Data And Undernourished Statistical Models: Comment On Fairbrother et al.’s Critical Evaluation

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EPA's Draft Tissue-Based Selenium Criterion: A technical Review

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Selenium Pollution: in Encyclopedia of Environmental Science, edited by D.E. Alexander and R.W. Fairbridge; Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

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Chapman PM, Adams WJ, Brooks ML, Delos CG, Luoma SN, Maher WA, Ohlendorf HM, Presser TS, and Shaw DP, eds., 2009. Ecological assessment of selenium in the aquatic environment: Summary of a SETAC Pellston Workshop. Pensacola FL (USA): Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC).

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What You Need to Know about Selenium (Chapter 3), by T.F. Young, K. Finley, W.J. Adams, J. Besser, W.A. Hopkins, D. Jolley, E. McNaughton, T.S. Presser, D.P. Shaw, and J. Unrine: Ecological Assessment of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Press, 2010.

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Selected Case Studies of Ecosystem Contamination by Selenium (Appendix A), by T.F. Young, K. Finley, W.J. Adams, J. Besser, W.A. Hopkins, D. Jolley, E. McNaughton, T.S. Presser, D.P. Shaw, and J. Unrine: Ecological Assessment of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Press, 2010.

Top Mining
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Volume 8, Ch. 16: Selenium Loading through the Blackfoot River Watershed...

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The Phosphoria Formation at the Hot Springs Mine in Southeast Idaho: A source of Selenium...

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Reconnaissance Survey, Selenium, Water, Avian Eggs... Phosphate Mining Region, Soda Springs, Idaho, May-June 1999

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Egg Dissection SOP, Skorupa and Ackerman, 2009

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Technical Review: Smoky Canyon Mine Site-Specific Selenium Criterion Report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012

 
TopWestern United States
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Selenium Impacts on Razorback Sucker, Colorado River, Colorado. I. Adults

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Selenium Impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado. II. Eggs

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Selenium Impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado. III. Larvae

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Reduced growth and survival of larval razorback sucker fed Selenium-laden zooplankton.

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Commentary: Selenium study on endangered razorback sucker is flawed.

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U.S. Department of the Interior. 1998. Guidelines for interpretation of the biological effects of selected constituents in biota, water, and sediment. National Irrigation Water Quality Program Information Report No. 3. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, p 139-184

TopModeling
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Aquatic Ecosystem-Scale Selenium Modeling for Invertebrates, Fish, and Birds

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Site-specific Model Development for the Great Salt Lake; Forecasting Selenium Concentrations; Foodweb Specific Modeling

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Great Salt Lake Selenium Standard: Recommendation to Steering Committee (Utah Division of Water Quality)

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Aquatic Ecosystem-Scale Selenium Modeling for Invertebrates, Fish, and Birds

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Presser, T.S., and Luoma, S.N., 2009, Modeling of selenium for the San Diego Creek watershed and Newport Bay, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1114, 48 p.

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Luoma, S.N., and Presser, T.S., Viewpoint; Emerging Opportunities in Management of Selenium Contamination: Environmental Science and Technology Publication Date (paper): Nov. 15, 2009.

Also available is supporting information.

This cover was published in 2009 by ACS.

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Presser, T.S., and Luoma, S.N., Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management–Volume 6. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, v. 6: 2010.

Also available is supporting information.

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Kleckner, A.E., Stewart, A.R., Elrick, K., and Luoma, S.N., 2010, Selenium concentrations and isotopic compositions of carbon and nitrogen in the benthic clam Corbula amurensis from Northern San Francisco Bay, California: May 1995–February 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1252, 34 p.

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Forecasting Selenium Discharges to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary:...

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Presser, T.S. and Luoma, S.N, 2010, Ecosystem-Scale Selenium Modeling in Support of Fish and Wildlife Selenium Criteria Development for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary, California, U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report, 101 p. and Appendices A-D. [Prepared for USEPA (Region 9, San Francisco, California); posted in several separate files]

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Presser, T.S. and Luoma, S.N, 2010, Ecosystem-Scale Selenium Modeling in Support of Fish and Wildlife Selenium Criteria Development for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary, California [same report as EPA link to the left; it is a combined file except for Appendices A and B, which are journal publications that are elsewhere on this website]

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Presser, T.S. and Luoma, S.N, 2013, Ecosystem-scale selenium model for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan (DRERIP)

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Presser, T.S. and Luoma, S.N, 2013, Appendix A: Ecosystem-scale selenium model for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan (DRERIP)

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Presser, T.S., 2013, Selenium in Ecosystems within the Mountaintop Coal Mining and Valley-Fill Region of Southern West Virginia—Assessment and Ecosystem-Scale Modeling, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1803, 86 p.

TopSan Joaquin Valley
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Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

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Letter from USGS Director Myers concerning Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the western San Joaquin Valley, California

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Potential Effects of Selenium Contamination on Federally-Listed Species Resulting from Delivery of Federal Water to the San Luis Unit

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Presser, T.S., Swain, W.C., Tidball, R.R., and Severson, R.C., 1990, Geologic sources, mobilization, and transport of selenium from the California Coast Ranges to the western San Joaquin Valley; a reconnaissance study: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 90-4070

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Fujii, Roger, and Swain, W.C., 1995, Areal distribution of selected trace elements, salinity, and major ions in shallow ground water, Tulare Basin, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4048 (text and downsampled plate)

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full-sized plate for Fujii, Roger, and Swain, W.C., 1995, Areal distribution of selected trace elements, salinity, and major ions in shallow ground water, Tulare Basin, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4048

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Tidball, R.R., R.C. Severson, J.M. McNeal and S.A. Wilson. 1986. Distribution of Selenium, Mercury and other Elements in the Soils of the San Joaquin Valley and Parts of the San Luis Service Area, Calif., The Bay Institute of San Francisco 1989.

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R.R. Tidball, R.C. Severson, C.A. Gent, and G.O. Riddle, 1989, Element associations in soils of the San Joaquin Valley of California: SSSA Special Publication no. 23

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T.S. Presser and Ivan Barnes, 1984, Selenium Concentrations in Waters Tributary to and in the Vicinity of the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge, Fresno and Merced Counties, California: USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 84-4122

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T.S. Presser and Ivan Barnes, 1985, Dissolved Constituents Including Selenium in Waters in the Vicinity of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge and the West Grassland, Fresno and Merced Counties, California: USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 85-4220

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San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program Committee and Team, 1990, A Management Plan For Agricultural Subsurface Drainage and Related Problems on the Westside San Joaquin Valley: A Management Plan For Agricultural Subsurface Drainage and Related Problems on the Westside San Joaquin Valley

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Theresa S. Presser, Marc A. Sylvester, Neil M. Dubrovsky, and Ray J. Hoffman, 1996, Review of the Grassland Bypass Channel Project Monitoring Program. Part I: Executive Summary Part II: Review of the GBCP Monitoring Plan and Quality Assurance Project Plan, USGS Administrative Report

Also available are Appendixes A-E.

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Theresa S. Presser, Karen E. Jenni, Timothy Nieman, and James Coleman, 2010, Decision Analysis Framing Study; In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California: USGS Open-File Report 2009-1121

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Moore, S.B., Winckel, J., Detwiler, S.J., Klasing, S.A., Gaul, P.A., Kanim, N.R., Kesser, B.E., DeBevec, A.B., Beardsley, K., and Puckett, L.K., 1990, Fish and Wildlife Resources and Agricultural Drainage in the San Joaquin Valley, California, San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program, Sacramento, California, vol. I (Sections 1-3) and vol. II (Sections 4-6 plus Appendices).

The following Annotated Bibliography of Environmental Effects of San Luis Unit Subsurface Agricultural Drainage August 2009 is a collection of dozens of articles, papers, and letters. We have collected many of the documents to which it refers. Those are linked from within the following bibliography.

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Annotated Bibliography of Environmental Effects of San Luis Unit Subsurface Agricultural Drainage August 2009

TopSe in Birds
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Ohlendorf, H.M., and others, 1986, Embryonic mortality and abnormalities of aquatic birds—apparent impacts of selenium from irrigatioin drainwater

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Ohlendorf, H.M., 2002, The birds of Kesterson Reservoir—a historical perspective

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Ohlendorf, H.M., 2011, Selenium, salty water, and deformed birds

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Ohlendorf, H.M. and Heinz, G.H., 2011, Selenium in birds

Links of Interest

TopFish & Wildlife Service

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Division of Environmental Quality
http://www.fws.gov/contaminants/index.cfm

U.S. Fish and Wildlife, Sacramento, California
http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/

Division of Environmental Quality, Sacramento
http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/ec/default.htm

Grassland Bypass Project
http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/ec/grassland.htm

Evaluation of the Clean Water Act Section 304(a) Human Health Criterion for Methylmercury: Protectiveness for Threatened and Endangered Wildlife in California
Go to this FWS report now.

Evaporation pond mitigation
http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/ec/evaporation_ponds.htm

Presentation at 2003 University of California Salinity Drainage Program Annual Conference: Drainage Solutions, Joseph Skorupa, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Final Biological Opinion on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Proposed Rule for the Promulgation of Water Quality Standards: Establishment of Numeric Criteria for Priority Toxic Pollutants for the State of California

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005, Public comment package in response to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft Aquatic Life Criteria Document for Selenium (Federal Register 69(@$@):75541-75546: December 17, 2004): U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 32 p and 5 attachments.

TopSan Francisco Bay-Delta, California

GS Ecology and Contaminants website:
http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/tracel/data/se_model/

For an additional library of articles on research of the San Francisco-Bay Delta:
http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/tracel/bibliography.html#2004

The San Francisco Bay-Delta Selenium Verification Study data can be found at:
http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/general/publications/
Click on: "S" and search for Selenium Verification Study (1988-1991)
This site also contains other reports of interest concerning selenium and drainage.

TopWestern United States

Many wetlands used by American avocets in western U.S. have been contaminated by selenium as a result of irrigation and other human activities.
Robinson, J.A., L.W. Oring, J.P.Skorupa, and R. Boettcher. 1997. American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana). In The Birds of North America, No. 275 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.
Go to this Avocet paper now.
See for example figure 6:
http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/BNA/gallery/American_Avocet_gallery.html

Robinson, J. A., J. M. Reed, J. P. Skorupa, and L. W. Oring. 1999. Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus meicanus). In The Birds of North America, No. 449 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/BNA/account/Black-necked_Stilt/CONSERVATION_AND_MANAGEMENT.html
See for example figure 6:
http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/BNA/gallery/Black-necked_Stilt_gallery.html

TopSan Joaquin Valley, California

A Management Plan for Agricultural Subsurface Drainage and Related Problems on the Westside San Joaquin Valley Final Report to the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program, 1990.
Agricultural Drainage Treatment Technology Review Memorandum Report prepared for the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program under U.S Bureau of Reclamation Order No. 0-PG-20-01500; Hanna, G.P, Kipps, J., and Owens, L.P., 1990.
Go to the report by Hanna and others now.

A Management Plan for Agricultural Subsurface Drainage and Related Problems on the Westside San Joaquin Valley Final Report to the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program, 1990
Go to the Table of Contents on page 4 and then on individual chapter headings.
Go to the Management Plan now.

50 Years of Scientific Accomplishments in Menlo Park
HISTORY OF KESTERSON
SELENIUM CONTAMINATION ASSOCIATED WITH IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES
Theresa S. Presser
National Research Program
Water Resources Division
Go to the Management Plan now.

The Bureau of Reclamation is re-evaluating options for providing drainage service to the San Luis Unit of the Central Valley Project. The EIS evaluates seven action alternatives in addition to No Action: In-Valley Disposal, In-Valley/Groundwater Quality Land Retirement, In-Valley/Water Needs Land Retirement, In-Valley/Drainage-Impaired Area Land Retirement, Ocean Disposal, Delta-Chipps Island Disposal, and Delta-Carquinez Strait Disposal. All of the alternatives would include common elements: on-farm and in-district actions, drainwater collection systems, regional reuse facilities, the Firebaugh sumps, and land retirement of at least 44,106 acres. In addition to the common elements, the action alternatives (except Ocean Disposal) involve varying levels of drainwater treatment (reverse osmosis and/or biological selenium treatment) and/or additional land retirement before disposal. http://www.usbr.gov/mp/sccao/sld/

The Grassland Bypass Project (GBP) is based upon an agreement between the U.S. Bureau of
Reclamation and the San Luis and Delta-Mendota Water Authority (Authority) to use a 28-mile segment
of the San Luis Drain. The Authority uses the Drain to convey agricultural subsurface drainage water
from the Grassland Drainage Area (GDA) to the San Joaquin River via a 6-mile segment of Mud Slough
(North). The first Use Agreement was signed November 3, 1995, and drainage water was conveyed though
the Drain from September 27, 1996 to September 30, 2001. The Second Use Agreement, executed
September 27, 2001, allows the Authority to continue to use the San Luis Drain through December 31,
2009. The California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (Regional Board),
issued revised Waste Discharge Requirements for the Project on September 7, 2001 that specified the
conditions for discharging drainage water into Mud Slough (North).
http://www.sfei.org/grassland/reports/gbppdfs.htm.
NEPA documents associated with the renewal of the Grassland Bypass Project 2010-2019: http://www.usbr.gov/mp/nepa/nepa_projdetails.cfm?Project_ID=3513.

The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area’s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in:
* the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices) http://www.usbr.gov/mp/sccao/sld/docs/index.html;
* recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation);
* approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and
* other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley.
http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1210/

Letter from USGS Director Myers concerning Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the western San Joaquin Valley, California
Library_articles/feinsteinltr0001-from-Director.pdf

Selenium Treatment Technologies
I. San Luis Unit Feature Re-evaluation Environmental Impact Statement, June 2006
http://www.usbr.gov/mp/nepa/nepa_projdetails.cfm?Project_ID=61
Final Appendix B: Pilot Studies
B1: Reverse Osmosis
B2: Selenium Treatment
B3: Enhanced Evaporation
B4: Bioaccumulation
B5: References
Attachment B-1: Pilot-Scale Evaluation of Biotreatment Technology
II. San Luis Drainage Feature Re-evaluation Feasibility Report, March 2008
http://www.usbr.gov/mp/sccao/sld/docs/sldfr_report/
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Main Report
Summary and Chapters 1–9
Appendices
A Feasibility Design Appendix
B Appraisal Level Four-Account Analysis of the Environmental Quality Account and Other Social Effects Account Resources
C Pump and Pipeline Design Data
D Reverse Osmosis Analyses Reports
E Selenium Biotreatment Pilot Reports
F Geology Report
G Technical Review of Field and Laboratory Permeability Testing
H Evaluation of Enhanced Evaporation Technologies
I Computer Modeling for Northerly Area Evaporation Basin
J Comparison of Embankment Options for Evaporation Ponds
K Mitigation
L Economics
M Record of Decision, San Luis Drainage Feature Re-evaluation
III. San Luis Drainage Feature Reevaluation Implementation Demonstration Treatment Facility at Panoche Drainage District Draft Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact, September, 2011
http://www.usbr.gov/mp/nepa/nepa_projdetails.cfm?Project_ID=8295

TopSalton Sea, California

The Pacific Institute and the U.S. Geological Survey’s Salton Sea Science Office convened a workshop in November 2004 to evaluate a proposal to rehabilitate the Salton Sea. The associated report, compiled and edited by the Pacific Institute under contract to the Bureau of Reclamation, presents the conclusions generated by the workshop. The report states that, in general, the presence of selenium is a concern because of:
1) its ability to bioaccumulate in the food web;
2) the narrow range between the concentration that is nutritionally beneficial and that which is toxic;
3) its effect on fish and bird reproduction and embryonic development;
4) its role in causing immune deficiency; and
5) its effect on human health from consumption of contaminated fish and birds.
The majority of participants stated that the threats of selenium toxicity posed by SSA's proposed rehabilitation plan, especially in the constructed wetlands and by the use of river and drainage water in the shallow habitat in the southern basin, approached the level of a fatal flaw. A minority of participants stated that potential losses due to selenium toxicity should be weighed in relation to alternatives, such as losing all marine wetland habitats if no action is taken.
http://www.pacinst.org/reports/salton_sea_iwmp/

HAZARD: The Future of the Salton Sea with No Restoration Project.
Michael J. Cohen and Karen H Hyun, Pacific Institute, 654 13th Street, Preservation Park, Oakland, CA 94612
May, 2006
The Salton Sea lies on the brink of catastrophic change. The amount of water flowing into the Salton Sea in the next twenty years will decrease by more than 40%, causing its surface elevation to drop by more than 20 feet, rapidly shrinking its volume by more than 60%, tripling its salinity, and exposing more than 100 square miles of dusty lakebed to the desert's blowing winds. Many, if not most, of the hundreds of thousands of birds that currently use the Sea will lose their roosting and breeding habitats and their source of food. The Sea's fish will be almost entirely gone within a dozen years. Those birds that remain will suffer from disease and the reproductive deformities and failures that plagued the Kesterson Wildlife National Wildlife Refuge twenty years ago. Some of the endangered and threaten species that use the Sea may be able to find other habitats, but others could suffer significant population losses.
http://www.pacinst.org/reports/saltonsea/

TopNewport Bay, California

San Diego Creek/Newport Bay Toxics TMDL
On June 14, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Toxics TMDL for San Diego Creek/Newport Bay. The EPA promulgated TMDL covers 14 different constituents – chlorpyrifos and diazinon (organophosphate pesticides); chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, PCBs, and toxaphene (organochlorinated compounds); cadmium, copper, lead and zinc (metals); selenium; chromium and mercury (metals, specific to Rhine Channel only).
http://www.ocwatersheds.com/watersheds/tmdls_toxics_intro.

TopPhosphate Mining

Real-time stream gauging data for the Blackfoot River above the Blackfoot Reservoir (USGS station 13063000) is available:
http://waterdata.usgs.gov/id/nwis/uv?site_no=13063000

For a complete description of the book entitled Life Cycle of the Phosphoria Formation: From Deposition to the Post-Mining Environment published by Elsevier, New York, containing USGS research on the Phosphoria Formation,
go to the site now..

The Greater Yellowstone Coalition recently completed a study of selenium levels in stream ecosystems in the vicinity of phosphate mines near Soda Springs, Idaho. Water quality, insects in water, plants living in the water, and fish were all tested for selenium concentrations. Go to: http://greateryellowstone.org/issues/issue.php?threatID=14
Scroll down to: VIEW THE SELENIUM CONCENTRATION REPORT HERE

Chemical Composition of Samples Collected from Waste Rock Dumps and Other Mining-Related Features at Selected Phosphate Mines in Southeastern Idaho, Western Wyoming, and Northern Utah
By: Phillip R. Moyle1 and J. Douglas Causey1
Western U.S. Phosphate Project2
Open-File Report 01-41, 2001
http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of01-411/OF01-411.pdf

Digital database of mining-related features at selected historic and active phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou Counties, Idaho
B y: J. Douglas Causey1 and Phillip R. Moyle1
Western U.S. Phosphate Project2
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-142
Digital Database, Online version 1.0, 2001
http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of01-142/of01-142.pdf

Smoky Canyon Mine Draft Environmental Impact Statement Panels F and G
The J.R. Simplot Company (Simplot), Smoky Canyon Mine has proposed an extension of its
current open pit phosphate mining operations south into two federal phosphate leases (Manning
Creek No. I-27512 – referred to as the Panel F lease area and Deer Creek No. I-01441 –
referred to as the Panel G lease area). The leases are administered by the Pocatello Field
Office of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the surface of the leases is managed by
the United States Forest Service (USFS), Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) .
These two federal agencies, plus the Idaho Department of Environmental
Quality (IDEQ), have prepared this EIS to review the environmental impacts of the proposed
operations and a range of reasonable alternatives.
http://www.id.blm.gov/planning/scmdeis/

An upwelling model for the Phosphoria sea: A Permian, ocean-margin sea in the northwest United States
David Z. Piper and Paul Karl Link
AAPG Bulletin, v. 86, no. 7 (July 2002), pp. 1217–1235
http://search.datapages.com/data/bulletns/2002/07jul/1217/images/02_1217.pdf

Geochemistry of Permian Rocks from the Margins of the Phosphoria Basin: Lakeridge Core, Western Wyoming
By Robert B. Perkins, Brandie McIntyre, James R. Hein, and David Z. Piper
USGS Open-File Report 03-21
http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of03-21/of03-21.pdf

Chemical composition of weathered and unweathered strata of the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation--A; Measured sections A and B, central part of Rasmussen Ridge, Caribou County, Idaho
By Herring, J.R., Desborough, G.A., Wilson, S.A., Tysdal, R.G., Grauch, R.I., and Gunter, M.E.
1999
USGS Open-File Report 99-147-A, 24 p.
Library_articles/Herring_OF99-147-A.pdf

Chemical composition of weathered and less weathered strata of the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation--B; Measured sections C and D, Dry Valley, Caribou County, Idaho
By Herring, J.R., Wilson, S.A., Stillings, L.A., Knudsen, A.C., Gunter, M.E., Tysdal, R.G., Grauch, R.I., Desborough, G.A., and Zielinski, R.A.
2000
USGS Open-File Report 99-147-B, 33 p.
Library_articles/Herring_OF99-147-B.pdf

Chemical composition of weathered and less weathered strata of the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation--C; Measured sections E and F, Rasmussen Ridge, Caribou County, Idaho
By Herring, J.R., Grauch, R.I., Desborough, G.A., Wilson, S.A., and Tysdal, R.G.
2000
USGS Open-File Report 99-147-C, 35 p.
Library_articles/Herring_OF99-147-C.pdf

Chemical composition of weathered and less weathered strata of the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation--D; Measured sections G and H, Sage Creek Canyon area of the Webster Range, Caribou County, Idaho
By Herring, J.R., Grauch, R.I., Tysdal, R.G., Wilson, S.A., and Desborough, G.A.
2000
USGS Open-File Report 99-147-D, 38 p.
Library_articles/Herring_OF99-147-D.pdf

Chemical composition of strata of the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation
By Herring, J.R., Grauch, R.I., Siems, D.F., Tysdal, R.G., Johnson, E.A., Zielinski, R.A., Desborough, G.A., Knudsen, A.C., and Gunter, M.E.
2001
USGS Open-File Report 01-195, 72 p.
Library_articles/Herring_OF01-195.pdf

TopCoal Mining

West Virginia Water Science Center
Water Resources of West Virginia
Coal Topics, Databases, and Related Information
http://wv.usgs.gov/
http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/coal/

U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1330
Spatial Trends in Ash Yield, Sulfur, Selenium, and Other Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Coal Beds of the Appalachian Plateau Region, U.S.A.
Published 2005, Version 1.0, Online only
Sandra G. Neuzil, Frank T. Dulong, and C. Blaine Cecil
http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1330/

National Coal Resources Data System
US Coal Quality Database
http://energy.er.usgs.gov/coalqual.htm

West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey.
Trace Elements in West Virginia Coals
These pages explore the geologic, environmental and economic aspects of trace elements in West Virginia coals.
http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/www/datastat/te/

Mountaintop Mining / Valley Fills in Appalachia: Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Final PEIS)
October, 2005
In October 2005, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Office of Surface Mining, and West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection completed their review and evaluation of all comments received on the Draft PEIS and jointly prepared the Final PEIS on mountaintop coal mining and associated valley fills in Appalachia. On October 28, 2005, the agencies announced the availability of the Final PEIS in a Federal Register notice and in a multi-agency press release widely distributed to local and national media. Please use these highlighted links to view these documents and any attachments.
http://www.epa.gov/Region3/mtntop/

June, 2003
This Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Interior’s Office of Surface Mining (OSM) and Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) (“the agencies”). The purpose of this EIS is to evaluate options for improving agency programs under the Clean Water Act (CWA), Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA) that will contribute to reducing the adverse environmental impacts of mountaintop mining operations and excess spoil valley fills (MTM/VF) in Appalachia. Preparation of this EIS involved substantial information gathering over the past four years, and it describes relevant historical data, details several possible alternative policy frameworks, and contains the results of over 30 scientific and technical studies conducted as a part of this effort. The agencies identified a preferred alternative that incorporates programmatic improvements at the state and Federal levels intended to provide enhanced environmental protection and agency coordination during permit reviews under SMCRA and CWA consistent with the primary goal of minimizing adverse environmental effects.
http://www.epa.gov/Region3/mtntop/eis.htm/

TopGreat Salt Lake, Utah

U.S. Geological Survey Utah Water Science Center
Information about the Great Salt Lake: elevation change, birds, shrimp, salinity, habitats, and publications:
http://ut.water.usgs.gov/greatsaltlake/

Working with a stakeholder committee, Utah's Division of Water Quality has began a process to establish numeric standards for the Great Salt Lake. The initial focus will be on selenium. Public concern over the potential of adding more selenium to the Lake as the result of the South West Jordan Valley groundwater cleanup project brought a renewed focus on the need for numeric standards. Under the committee’s oversight, a science panel will look at the existing selenium studies on the Lake and conduct additional work, where necessary. The committee will consider the science panel’s work, then make a recommendation to the Water Quality Board. If the Board accepts the recommendation, the standard will be sent out for public comment before the action is final.
http://www.deq.utah.gov/Issues/GSL_WQSC/

Great Salt Lake Selenium Standard, Written Recommendation to the Steering Committee, by Joseph Skorupa, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. These points are covered in the following article:
* The Great Salt Lake’s Unique Values Warrant a Highly Precautionary Approach
* Tolerably Toxic as Opposed to Nontoxic is Too Reckless an Approach for Such a High Value System With Such Substantive Remaining Uncertainties
* No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) is not the Same as a No Effect Concentration (NEC)
* Ultimately the Standard Should Be Linked to an Estimate of the NEC for Avian Eggs
* Best Estimate of EC10 for Mallard Egg Hatchability
* Estimating the No Effects Concentration (NEC) for Avian Eggs
Library_articles/Skorupa_Recommendation_final.pdf

Site-specific Model Development for the Great Salt Lake; Forecasting Selenium Concentrations; Foodweb Specific Modeling, by Theresa S. Presser, U.S. Geological Survey, and Joseph P. Skorupa, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Presentation to Science Panel and Steering Committee, May 2, 2008
Library_articles/presser_GSLpresentation1.pdf

A related issue to that of selenium in the Great Salt Lake is the elevated concentrations of mercury found in ducks in December, 2005. The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources (UDWR) began a preliminary study during the summer of 2005 to determine if ducks around Great Salt Lake contained mercury. This concern was based upon research findings from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and United States Fish & Wildlife Service (USF&WS) that demonstrated the lake had elevated levels of methyl mercury. Archived tissue samples from three waterfowl species were taken from ducks collected in 2004 in an unrelated study being conducted by The Great Salt Lake Ecosystem Project at UDWR and Utah State University (USU).
Results of that analysis promulgated a more expansive collection of seven waterfowl species for further testing. All of these data from areas near the Great Salt Lake covering the period 2004 and 2005 were provided to the Utah Department of Health (UDOH), Environmental Epidemiology Program (EEP) for review . The EEP completed a health consultation recommending that a consumption advisory for waterfowl harvested from the Great Salt Lake marshes be issued because of elevated levels of mercury detected in Common Goldeneye and Northern Shoveler.
The advisory issued in cooperation with the UDWR, UDOH, Utah Department of Environmental Quality and local health departments states that people should not consume meat from Common Goldeneye and Northern Shoveler harvested from this region.
http://wildlife.utah.gov/news/05-09/mercury_duck.php
http://www.deq.utah.gov/Issues/Mercury/duck_advisory.htm

TopGeneral

Environmental Protection Agency, December, 17, 2004
Notice of Draft Aquatic Life Criteria for Selenium and Request for Scientific Information, Data and Views:
Go to: http://www.regulations.gov/fdmspublic/component/main
Click to search ALL DOCUMENTS
Under agency, click on Environmental Protection Agency
Under document type, click on NOTICES
Under keyword, type: SELENIUM
Click on DOCUMENT ID: EPA-HQ-OW-2004-0019-0001, for DOCKET DETAIL

In addition, USEPA's Environmental Impact Statement Database provides information about EISs filed with EPA. This new application allows a search for EIS submissions back through 2004. You can search by title, date published, state, close of comment date and agency.
http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/eisdata.html

SELENIUM HAZARDS TO FISH, WILDLIFE, AND INVERTEBRATES:
A SYNOPTIC REVIEW, 1985, Ronald Eisler, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, MD 20708, 41 pages.
http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/infobase/eisler/CHR_5_Selenium.PDF

Selenium World Atlas, Updated Edition 2002, James Oldfield, Oregon State University, Corvalis Oregon
http://www.369.com.cn/hcvenglish/Se%20Atlas%202002.pdf

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Toxicological Profile for Selenium
September 2003
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp92.html

This website provides an overview of health and environmental concerns resulting from increasing exposure to selenium from industrial processes.
http://www.seleniumwatch.org/

For further information, contact:

Link to USGS home page

Theresa S. Presser
tpresser@usgs.gov
National Research Program
U.S. Geological Survey, MS 435
345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025
650-329-4512

Link to Fish and Wildlife Service home page

Joseph P. Skorupa
joseph_skorupa@fws.gov
Division of Environmental Quality
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
4401 N. Fairfax Dr., Arlington, VA 22203
703-358-2402

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