[U. S. Geological Survey]

Chapter 12

Snowmelt-Dominated Systems

Allan Rodhe

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology (1998), C. Kendall and J. J. McDonnell (Eds.)
Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 391-434.


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Behrens, H., Bergmann, H., Moser, H., Rauert, W., Stichler, W., Ambach, W., Eisner, H. and Pessl, K., 1971. Study of the discharge of alpine glaciers by means of environmental isotopes and dye tracers. Z. Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol., 7(1-2): 79-102.

Behrens, H., Moser, H., Oerter, H., Rauert, W. and Stichler, W., 1979. Models for the runoff from a glaciated catchment area using measurements of environmental isotope contents. In: Isotope Hydrology 1978. IAEA, Vienna, pp. 829-846.

Bengtsson, L., Seuna, P., Lepistö, A. and Saxena, R., 1992. Particle movement of melt water in a subdrained agricultural basin. Jour. of Hydrol., 135: 383-398.

Bengtsson, L., Lepistö, A., Saxena, R. and Seuna, P., 1989. Mixing of acid meltwater with groundwater in a forested basin in Finland. In: Atmospheric Deposition. IAHS Publ. No. 179, IAHS, Wallingford, pp. 251-258.

Bengtsson, L., Lepistö, A., Saxena, R. and Seuna, P., 1991. Mixing of meltwater and groundwater in a forested basin. Aqua Fennica, 21(1): 3-12.

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Bottomley, D.J., Craig, D. and Johnston, L.M., 1986. Oxygen-18 studies of snowmelt runoff in a small precambrian shield watershed: Implications for streamwater acidification in acid-sensitive terrain. Jour. of Hydrol., 88: 213-234.

Buttle, J.M. and Sami, K., 1990. Recharge processes during snowmelt: An isotopic and hydrometric investigation. Hydrol. Processes, 4: 343-360.

Buttle, J.M., 1994. Isotope hydrograph separations and rapid delivery of pre-event water from drainage basins. Progress in Physical Geography 18(1): 16-41.

Cooper, L.W., Olsen, C.R., Solomon, D.K., Larsen, I.L., Cook, R.B. and Grebmeier, J.M., 1991. Stable isotopes of oxygen and natural fallout radionuclides used for tracing runoff during snowmelt in an Arctic watershed. Water Resour. Res., 27(9): 2171-2179.

Cooper, L.W., Solis, C., Kane, D.L. and Hinzman, L.D., 1993. Application of oxygen-18 tracer techniques to Arctic hydrological processes. Arctic and Alpine Research, 25(3): 247-255.

Crouzet, E., Hubert, P., Olive, Ph. and Siwertz, E., 1970. Le tritium dans les mesures d'hydrologie de surface. Détermination expérimentale du coefficient de ruissellement. Jour. of Hydrol., 11: 217-229.

Dansgaard, W., 1961. The isotopic composition of natural waters with special reference to the Greenland ice cap. Meddelelser om Grönland, 165(2): 1-120.

De Smedt, F. and Wirenga, P.J., 1984. Solute transfers through columns of glass beads. Water Resour. Res., 20: 225-232.

DeWalle, D.R., Swistock, B.R. and Sharpe, W.E., 1988. Three-component tracer model for stormflow on a small Appalachian forested catchment. Jour. of Hydrol., 104: 301-310.

Dinçer, T., Payne, B.R., Florkowski, T., Martinec, J. and Tongiorgi, E., 1970. Snowmelt runoff from measurements of tritium and oxygen-18. Water Resour. Res., 6: 110-124.

Dunne, T. and Black, R.D., 1970. Partial area contributions to storm runoff in a small New England watershed. Water Resour. Res., 6(5): 1296-1313.

Epstein, S. and Sharp, R.P., 1959. Oxygen isotope variations in the Malaspina and Saskatchewan glaciers. J. Geol., 67: 88-102.

Freeze, R.A., 1972a. Role of subsurface flow in generating surface runoff, 1. Baseflow contributions to channel flow. Water Resour. Res., 8(3) : 609-623.

Freeze, R.A., 1972b. Role of subsurface flow in generating surface runoff, 2. Upstream source areas. Water Resour. Res., 8(5): 1272-1283.

Freeze, R.A., 1974. Streamflow generation. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 12(4): 627-647.

Fritz, P., Cherry, J.A., Weyer, K.V. and Sklash, M.G., 1976. Runoff analyses using environmental isotopes and major ions. In: Interpretation of environmental isotope and hydrochemical data in groundwater hydrology. IAEA, Vienna, pp. 111-130.

Gibson, J.J., Edwards, T.W.D. and Prowse, T.D., 1993. Runoff generation in a high boreal wetland in Northern Canada. Nordic Hydrology, 24: 213-224.

Grip, H. and Rodhe, A., 1994. Vattnets väg från regn till bäck (In Swedish, English title: Water flow pathways from rain to stream), Hallgren och Fallgren, Uppsala (Earlier edition 1985, Forskningsrådens förlagstjänst, Stockholm.), 156 p.

Gvirtzman, H. and Magaritz, M., 1986. Investigation of water movement in the unsaturated zone under an irrigated area using environmental tritium. Water Resour. Res., 22: 635-642.

Harr, R.D., 1977. Water flux in soil and subsoil on a steep forested slope. Jour. of Hydrol., 33: 37-58.

Harris, D.M., McDonnell, J.J. and Rodhe, A., 1995. Hydrograph separation using continuous open-system isotope mixing. Water Resour. Res., 31: 157-171.

Herrmann, A., 1978. A recording snow lysimeter. Jour. Glaciology, 82(20): 209-231.

Herrmann, A. and Stichler, W., 1978. Variations d'isotopes stables dans une couche de neige alpine et leur application aux etudes hydrologiques. 2ème Rencontre sur la Neige et les Avalanches de l'A.N.E.N.A. Grenoble, 12-14 avril 1978, pp. 81-90.

Herrmann, A. and Stichler, W., 1980. Groundwater - runoff relationships. Catena, 7: 251-263.

Herrmann, A., Martinec, J. and Stichler, W., 1978. Study of snowmelt-runoff components using isotope measurements. Proc. Modeling of Snow Cover Runoff, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire, 26-28 Sept. 1978, pp. 288-296.

Hillel, D., 1987. Unstable flow in layered soils: A review. Hydrol. Processes, 1: 143-147.

Hooper, R.P. and Shoemaker, C.A., 1986. A comparison of chemical and isotopic hydrograph separation. Water Resour. Res., 22(10): 1444-1454.

Horton, R.E., 1933. The role of infiltration in the hydrological cycle. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 14: 446-460.

Johansson, B., 1985. A study of soil water and groundwater flow of hillslopes - using a mathematical model. Nordic Hydrology, 16(2): 67-78.

Kane, D.L. and Stein, J., 1983a. Field evidence of groundwater recharge in interior Alaska. In: Proc. 4th int. conf. on permafrost. National Academic Press, Washington D.C., pp. 572-577.

Kane, D.L. and Stein, J., 1983b. Water movement into seasonally frozen soils. Water Resour. Res., 19(6): 1547-1557.

Kennedy, V.C., Kendall, C., Zellweger, G.W., Wyerman, T.A. and Avanzino, R.J., 1986. Determinations of the components of stormflow using water chemistry and environmental isotopes, Mattole River basin, California. Jour. of Hydrol., 84: 107-140.

Lepistö, A., 1995. Runoff generation processes in peaty forest catchments - possibilities for regionalization. Proc. Boulder Symp., July 1995, IAHS Publ. No. 229, pp. 285-294.

Lindström, G. and Rodhe, A., 1992. Transit times of water in soil lysimeters from modeling of oxygen-18. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 65: 83-100.

Lundin, L., 1982. Mark- och grundvatten i moränmark och marktypens betydelse för avrinningen (In Swedish with English summary and figure legends. English title: Soil moisture and ground water in till soil and the significance of soil type for runoff). UNGI Report 56, Uppsala Univ., Dept Phys. Geogr., 216 pp.

Maloszewski, P., Rauert, W., Stichler, W. and Herrmann, A., 1983. Application of flow models in an Alpine catchment area using tritium and deuterium data. Jour. of Hydrol., 66: 319-330.

Martinec, J., 1975. Subsurface flow from snowmelt traced by tritium. Water Resour. Res., 11: 496-498.

Martinec, J., Moser, H., De Quervain, M.R., Rauert, W. and Stichler, W., 1977. Assessment of processes in the snowpack by parallel deuterium, tritium and oxygen-18 sampling. In: Isotopes and impurities in snow and ice. Proc. Banff Symp., August-Sept. 1975, IAHS Publ. No. 118, pp. 220-231.

Martinec, J., Siegenthaler, U., Oeschger, H. and Tongiorgi, E., 1974. New insights into the run-off mechanism by environmental isotopes. In: Isotope techniques in groundwater hydrology 1974. IAEA, Vienna, pp. 129-149.

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Miller, R.D., 1980. Freezing phenomena in soils. In: D. Hillel (Ed), Applications in soil physics. Academic Press, pp. 254-299.

Miyake, Y. and Tsubota, H., 1963. Estimation of the direct contribution of meteoric water to river waters by means of fall-out radiocaesium and radiostrontium. In: Proc. Symp. Radioisotopes in Hydrology. IAEA, Vienna, pp. 425-431.

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