[U. S. Geological Survey]

Chapter 2

Fundamentals of Isotope Geochemistry

Carol Kendall and Eric A. Caldwell

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology (1998), C. Kendall and J.J. McDonnell (Eds.).
Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. pp. 51-86.


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Baedecker, M.J., and Back, 1979. Hydrogeochemical processes at a landfill. Ground Water, 17: 429-437.

Barnes, C.J. and Allison, G.B., 1988. Tracing of water movement in the unsaturated zone using stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Jour. of Hydrol., 100: 143-176.

Barrie, A., and Prosser, S.J., 1996. Automated analysis of light-element stable isotopes by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, In: Boutton, T. W. and Yamasaki, S-I (Eds.). Mass Spectrometry of Soils. New York; Marcel Dekker, pp. 1-46.

Bullen, T.D., Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Kendall, C., 1996. Kinetic and mineralogic controls on the evolution of groundwater
chemistry and 87Sr/86Sr in a sandy silicate aquifer, northern Wisconsin, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 60: 1807-1821.

Buttle, J.M., 1994. Isotope hydrograph separations and rapid delivery of pre-event water from drainage basins. Progress in Physical Geography, 18: 16-41.

Chang, C.C.Y., Langston, J., Riggs, M., Campbell, D.H., Silva, S.R., and Kendall, C., 1998. Nitrate collection for 15N and 18O analysis in alpine watersheds (in review).

Clark, I.D. and Fritz, P., 1997. Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology, CRC Press, 328 p.

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Craig, H., 1961. Isotope variations in meteoric waters. Science, 133: 1702-1703.

Craig, H. and Gordon, L., 1965. Deuterium and oxygen-18 in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. In: E. Tongiorgi (Ed), Stable Isotopes in Oceanographic Studies and Paleotemperatures, Spoleto 1965, 130 p.

Dansgaard, W., 1964. Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus, 16: 436-438.

Dickin, A.P., 1995. Radiogenic Isotope Geology, Cambridge University Press, 490 p.

Faure, G., 1986. Principles of Isotope Geology, 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 589 p.

Fogel, M.L. and Cifuentes, L.A., 1993. Isotope fractionation during primary production. In: M.H. Engel and S.A. Macko (Eds). Organic Geochemistry, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 73-98.

Friedman, I. and O'Neil, J.R., 1977. Compilation of stable isotope fractionation factors of geochemical interest. In: M.
Fleischer (Ed), Data of Geochemistry, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 440-KK, 6th Ed., Reston, VA.

Garten, C.T., 1992. Nitrogen isotope composition of ammonium and nitrate in bulk precipitation and forest throughfall. Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 47: 33-45.

Gat, J.R., 1980. The isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation. In: P. Fritz and J.-Ch. Fontes (Eds), Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, Vol. 1, The Terrestrial Environment., A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 21-48.

Gat, J.R., 1995. Stable isotopes and the water balance of fresh and saltwater lakes. In: A. Lerman, D.M. Imboden and J.R. Gat (Eds), Physics and chemistry of lakes, 2nd Edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 334 p.

Gat, J.R., 1996. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hydrologic cycle. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 24: 225-262.

Gat, J.R., Bowser, C.J. and Kendall, C., 1994. The contribution of evaporation from the Great Lakes to the continental atmosphere: estimate based on stable isotope data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(7): 557-560.

Gat, J.R. and Gonfiantini, R., (Eds) 1981. Stable Isotope Hydrology: Deuterium and Oxygen-18 in the Water Cycle. IAEA Technical Report Series #210, Vienna, 337 p.

Gat, J.R., Shemesh, A., Tziperman, E., Hecht, A., Georgopoulos, D., and Basturk, O., 1996. The stable isotope composition of waters in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 101: 6441-6451.

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Horita, J., 1989. Analytical aspects of stable isotopes in brines. Chem. Geol., 79: 107-112.

Hübner, H., 1986. Isotope effects of nitrogen in the soil and biosphere. In: P. Fritz and J.C. Fontes (Eds) Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, 2b, The Terrestrial Environment, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 361-425.

Kendall, C., Sklash, M.G., and Bullen, T.D., 1995. Isotope tracers of water and solute sources in catchments, In: S. Trudgill (Ed), Solute Modelling in Catchment Systems, Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 261-303.

Majoube, M., 1971. Fractionnement en oxygène-18 et en deutérium entre l'eau et sa vapeur. Jour. Chem. Phys., 197: 1423-1436.

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Mazor, E., 1997. Chemical and Isotopic Groundwater Hydrology: The Applied Approach, 2nd edition, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 413 p.

McDonnell, J.J. and Kendall, C., 1992. Isotope tracers in hydrology--report to the Hydrology Section: EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 73: 260-261.

Merlivat, L., 1978. Molecular diffusivities of H216O, HD16O and H218O in gases. J. Chim. Phys., 69: 2864-2871.

Merlivat, L. and Jouzel, J., 1979. Global climatic interpretation of the deuterium - oxygen-18 relationship for precipitation. Jour. Geophys. Res., 84: 5029-5033.

O'Leary, M.H.,1981. Carbon fractionation in plants. Phytochem., 20: 553-567.

O'Neil, J.R., 1986. Theoretical and experimental aspects of isotopic fractionation. In: J.W. Valley, H.P. Taylor and J.R. O'Neil (Eds), Stable Isotopes in High Temperature Geological Processes. Reviews in Mineralogy, Volume 16, pp. 1-40.

Ogunkoya, O.O. and Jenkins, A., 1991. Analysis of runoff pathways and flow distributions using deuterium and stream chemistry. Hydrol. Proc., 5: 271-282.

Peters, N. E., 1994. Hydrologic studies, In: B. Moldan and J. Cerny (Eds), Biogeochemistry of Small Catchments: A Tool for Environmental Research, SCOPE Report 51, Ch. 9, pp. 207-228.

Plummer, L.N., Parkhurst, D.L. and Thorstenson, D.C., 1983. Development of reaction models for ground-water systems. Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta., 47: 665-686.

Plummer, L.N., Prestemon, E.C. and Parkhurst, D.L., 1991. An interactive code (NETPATH) for modelling net geochemical reactions along a flow path. USGS Water-Rources Inves. Report 91-4078, 227 p.

Robson, A., Beven, K.J., and Neal, C. 1992. Towards identifying sources of subsurface flow: a comparison of components identified by a physically based runoff model and those determined by chemical mixing techniques, Hydrol. Proc., 6: 199-214.

Silva, S.R., Kendall, C., Wilkison, D.H., Ziegler, A.C., Chang, C.C.Y. and Avanzino, A.J., 1998. Collection and analysis of nitrate from fresh water for nitrogen and oxygen isotopes. (submitted).

Sklash, M.G., 1990. Environmental isotope studies of storm and snowmelt runoff generation. In: M.G. Anderson and T.P. Burt (Eds), Process Studies in Hillslope Hydrology, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K., pp. 401-435.

Sklash, M.G. and Farvolden, R.N., 1979. The role of groundwater in storm runoff. Jour. of Hydrol., 43: 45-65.
tion 14-85, American Society of Agricultural Engineers; St. Joseph, MI: 51-69.

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