[U. S. Geological Survey]

Index



Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology (1998), C. Kendall and J. J. McDonnell (Eds.)
Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 839 p.
a, alpha particle 54, 251
a, fractionation factor 59
Ablation 123
Acid rain 556 Activity, isotope definition 75
Agricultural practices see also Plants Air masses 94, 96, 101, 102 Albedo 3, 25
Allequash Creek, Wisconsin, USA
478-484
Alpha-particle recoil 255, 617
Altitude (elevation) effect 101
Aluminum-26 (26Al) 647, 655 Amargosa Desert, USA 456
Amazon Basin, South America 109
Ammonification 527
Amount effect 102, 107
AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) 77
Analytical instruments 75 Animal waste 530, 532, 534
Annual precipitation 102 Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) 355
Apex River, Baffin Island, Canada 126
Aquifer see also Groundwater, 3 Aquitard 3
Arctic hydrology 132
Argon-39 (39Ar) 210 Arid catchments 435 Ash Meadows, Nevada, USA 456, 457
Assimilation of nitrogen 527
Atmospheric CO2 106
Atmospheric deposition
see also Precipitation Atmospheric oxygen, d18O 94, 542
Atmospheric processes 21, 495 Atmospheric water vapor 106, 109 Aufeis 130 Babinda, Australia
see Chapter 11, 349, 350
Bacteria 494, 526 Barometric pressure 22
Baseflow 3 Bavaria, Germany 512, 539, 541
Bear Brook watershed, Maine, USA
502, 504, 505, 510, 512, 561
Beryllium-10 (10Be) 279 Beryllium-10/Aluminum-26
(10Be/26Al) 653
Beryllium-7 (7Be) 257, 668 Bicarbonate see also DIC, 631
Bickford watershed, Massachusetts,
USA 699, 702
Big Creek and Big Otter Creek,
Ontario, Canada 331
Big Muskellunge Lake, Wisconsin,
USA 474-484, 628, 629
Bird migration 768
Birkenes catchment, Norway 341
Bishop Creek watershed, California,
USA 445
Black Forest, Germany 507, 513
Bomb peak / bomb pulse 258 BOREAS 587, 588, 589
Boron Isotopes (11B) 279, 641 Bowen ratio 3
Bowen's Reaction Series 254-255
Buskbacken, Sweden 407
Budyko ratio 436 C3, C4, and CAM plants 578, 783
Calcium-41 (41Ca) 257, 281
Canada 309, 331, 506 Canopy see also Throughfall, 8, 108 Canterbury Plains, South Island,
New Zealand 236
Cañon Diablo Troilite (CDT) 56, 491
Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA 297
Capillary fringe 3, 12
Carbon cycling see also Soils, 577 Carbon dioxide
see also Carbon cycling, 580 Carbon-13 (13C) of DIC 577, 617 Carbon-14 (14C) 257, 577, 647 Carbonates 210 Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, USA 107
Carter's Creek, Tennessee, USA 689-691
Catchment 3
Catchment fraction 129, 411 Cation exchange 622
Catoctin Mountain, Maryland, USA
635, 637
Caves 108, 659 Cellulose 786, 791 Central Valley, California, USA 268
Cesium-137 (137Cs) 647, 661 Channel precipitation 3
Charlotte Harbor, Florida, USA
705-708, 711
Chemical tracers see also
Hydrograph separation, 718, 751 Chernobyl effects 661, 663 Chlorine-36 (36Cl) 257-259, 265, 266 Chlorine-37 (37Cl ) 279
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 299, 460 Chronosequences 586
Climate change
see Environmental change
Closed system conditions 61, 67, 95
CO2, atmospheric 580, 602
Coastal plant communities 186
Collection see Sample collection
Colorado River, USA 179, 446, 450
Compound-specific IRMS 565
Concentration gradient 142
Condensation 64, 89
Conservation equations
(mass/isotopes) 150
Contaminant hydrology 551
Continental effect 100, 101, 104, 108 Continuity equation 1
Convective systems 104
Convolution integral 734, 737
Cores, snow 125-126
Cosmic radiation 257
Craig, meteoric relationship 65, 91
Craig-Gordon model 68
Crystal Lake, Wisconsin, USA
474, 628, 629
Cul-de-Sac plain, Haiti Republic 235
Cumulative evaporation in a soil
column 153 Dalton equation 20
Darcy's law 15, 147
Death Valley, USA 476
Decay equation
see Radioactive decay, 55
Decay mechanisms, radioactive 54, 56
Decay series 681
Definitions 3-6
Deforestation 190, 191
Delayed flow 352
Delmarva Peninsula, USA
555, 767, 768
Delta (d), definition 55 Dendrochronology 785 Denitrification 530 Denudation see Erosion
Desertification 190
Deuterium (2H, D) 51 Devil's Hole, Nevada, USA,
d18O variations in vein calcite 777, 778
Diffusion 68, 142, 143, 154
Diffusion length scales 158
Dimethylsulfide (DMS) 495
Direct precipitation onto
saturated areas 32, 33
Dischma catchment, Switzerland 399
Dispersion model 736
Dissolved gases
see specific isotopes, 291 Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC)
see also Carbon-13, 631, 633 Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC)
see also Carbon cycling, 564, 595, 599 Drift Creek, Oregon, USA 653, 654
Dry deposition
see Atmospheric deposition Eastern Uplands, New South Wales,
Australia 669
Ecosystem 519
Effective diffusivity 144, 147
Elevation effect 101
Elevation head 34
Emissivity 25
Energy balance 21
Enrichment factor (e) 59
Environmental change
see also Paleoclimate studies, 761 Environmental isotopes 51
Environmental tracers 764 Erosion rate 648 Erosion, weathering, and
sedimentation 647 Estuaries, groundwater input 705
Evaporation 19, 36, 449 Evaporation lines 69, 92, 447
Evapotranspiration 69, 88, 94, 110 Evapotranspirational recycling 94 Event and pre-event water 320
Event water 3, 402, 403, 404
Excess N2 550 Exfiltration 3
Experimental Lakes Area, Ontario,
Canada 309, 505, 506 Falling Creek basin, Georgia, USA 339
Falling limb 3
Fertilizer 532, 534, 542, 544 Field sampling 72 Fick's law 145, 148
Fires, effect on carbon cycling 587
Fishrun catchment, Pennsylvania,
USA 335
Flow models
see Groundwater modeling, 31 Flowpaths see also
Runoff mechanisms, 28, 83 Fog 90, 97, 98, 186 Food web studies 562, 768 Forests 489 Fractionation see Isotope fractionation
Fractionation factor (a) 59 Freeze thaw cycles 128
Freezing 127, 128 Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA 779
Fretwell's law 52
Fuhrberger Feld nitrate study 553 G1 catchment, Sweden 756
Gamma distribution 735
Gas tracers see Tracers, injected gas
Gases see Dissolved gases
Geochemical modeling 82, 568
Geothermal groundwater 234
Glacial ice 765
Glacial studies 777
continental glaciers 778
d13C of cellulose 791
Fremont Glacier, USA 779, 780
ice core 778
uranium-series age dates 777
Glendhu 2 watershed, New Zealand
336, 337
Global carbon budget
see Carbon budget
Global Meteoric Water Line
(GMWL) 65, 91, 92 Global Network for Isotopes in
Precipitation (GNIP) 88
Gordonia district, South Africa 450, 451
Goulburn, New South Wales,
Australia 668
Gravitational potential 12
Great Artesian Basin, Australia 456
Great Basin, USA 439
Greenhouse gases 531
Ground heat flux 11
Groundwater surface-water
interactions 467 Groundwater 203, 225 Groundwater dating see also Groundwater
modeling, 294, 295, 296, 305, 763 Groundwater discharge 688 Groundwater flow 32
Groundwater mixing 547, 552
Groundwater modeling 218, 221 Groundwater recharge 215 Groundwater ridging 348, 365, 378, 384 Hail 96
Hamakua Coast, Hawaii, USA 590, 591
Harp Lake, Ontario, Canada 324, 415
Head, hydraulic 360-366
Helium-3 (3He) 647
Helium-4 (4He) 303, 308, 459
Henry's law 249, 250
High-rainfall catchments 347 Hillslope processes 30
Höglwald, Germany 512, 513
Horton flow 4, 27, 29, 325, 352
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest,
New Hampshire, USA 500, 508-510
Humidity 66 Hydraulic conductivity 4, 14, 16 Hydraulic diffusivity 15
Hydraulic lift by plants 182 Hydrograph, definition 27 Hydrograph separation
see also Mixing models, 41 Hydrohill catchment, China 329, 330
Hydrologic budgets
see also Hydrograph separation, 474
Hydrologic cycle 88
Hydrological processes 1, 359 Hydraulic diffusivity/conductivity 3-7
Hysteresis 4, 334 IAEA (International Atomic Energy
Agency) 56, 88 Ice cores see also Snowpack, 778
Immobile water 4
Imnavait Creek, Alaska, USA 126-130 Infiltration 13 Infiltration capacity 4, 29
Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH)
386, 733, 739 Interception, see also Throughfall, 4, 8
Interflow 30
Iodine isotopes (129I) 261
Isotope ratio mass spectrometer
(IRMS) 565
Iron (Fe) isotopes 643 ISOGEOCHEM website 78
IsoIG website 78
Isotope biogeochemistry 79
Isotope enrichment factor (e) 59
Isotope equilibrium
see Isotope fractionations
Isotope fractionations 57, 120, 121 Isotope hydrology 78
Isotope, defined 51 Isotopes in model calibration
see also Hydrograph separation,
Groundwater modeling, 341 Isotopes versus solutes
see also Chemical tracers, 477
Isotopic exchange 57, 107 Kalahari Desert, Africa 445, 452, 549
Kalman filtering 744-751
Karst see Caves
Kinetic fractionations
see Isotope fractionation, 60
Kinetic isotope effects 60, 67, 68, 70 Kitchener and Waterloo aquifers,
Ontario, Canada 499
Krypton-81 (81Kr) 210
Krypton-85 (85Kr) 210, 302, 307, 459 Kuparuk River catchment, Alaska,
USA 129-131
Kuruman River, South Africa 445 Labeled materials
see also Tracer studies, 82 Lacustrine environments 792 Lag-to-peak 27
Lainbachtal catchment, Germany
400, 401
Lake Asal, Djibouti 469
Lake Barco, Florida, USA 470, 766
Lake Fryxell, Antarctica 600, 601, 765
Lake Gårdsjön catchment, Sweden
396, 428, 514, 756
Lake George, New South Wales 470
Lake Heimdalsvatn, Norway 665
Lake Mina, Minnesota, USA 799, 800
Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada,
USA 440
Lake Titicaca, South America 469
Lake Victoria, Kenya 788
Lake-dominated systems 467
Lakes 792 Lappträsket catchment, Sweden 393
Lapse rate 89
Latent heat flux 24
Latitude effect 102
Lead Isotopes (204Pb/208Pb) 611 Lead-210 (210Pb) 647, 655 Leaf Area Index (LAI) 176, 177
Leaf water potential 192
Linearity 727
Liquid diffusion 143
Liquid scintillation counter 76
Lithium-7 (7Li) 278, 640 Lithogenic and cosmogenic tracers
see specific isotopes, 247, 252, 260 Llano Uplift, Texas, USA 654
Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) 93
Loch Vale watershed, Colorado, USA
556, 557, 601, 625
Long Term Ecological Research
(LTER) Sites
Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, USA
500, 508-510 Longitudinal variation in stream d18O 131
Luquillo Experimental Forest,
Puerto Rico, USA 652
Lysimeters, snow melt and soil
126, 400, 422-426 M6 catchment, New Zealand 325
M8 catchment, New Zealand 39, 323, 326
Macropores 4, 18, 327 Maimai catchment, New Zealand
39, 323-328, 348, 736
Makgadigadi, Botswana 452
Manaugat River, Turkey 223, 237
Mass balance
see also Mixing models, 167 Mass spectrometry 75
Matric potential see also Soil water, 360
Mean age of water 219
Mean residence time 230, 736-737
Merced, California, USA
617, 620, 673, 674
Meteoric relationship for 18O and 2H
65, 91
Meteoric water line see GMWL
Methanogenesis 593-595
Methemoglobinemia 519
Micropores 4, 18
Microbial activity
see also Bacteria, 494, 526, 542
Middle East precipitation 453
Mineral reactions see also Weathering Mineral weathering rates 620
Mineralization 527
Mixing models see also Groundwater
mixing, 726-727 Modry Dul catchment, Czech Republic
222, 399
Moisture characteristic 14
Molecular diffusion/diffusivity 145, 146
Molecular exchange 128
Monotonically increasing function 755
Multi-isotope approach 83, 627-644
Murray-Darling basin, Australia 190
Muttee basin, Switzerland 662, 664
MWL see also GMWL, 447 Nancy, France 790
National Bureau of Standards (NBS) 56
National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) 56 Neodymium-143 (143Nd) 277, 278
Neon-21 (21Ne) 647
Neutron activation 258
New South Wales, Australia 752
New versus old water 320, 348, 368,
376, 383, 391, 393
New water see Hydrograph separation
Nile River, Egypt/Sudan 443, 448
Nitrate see also Nitrogen-15
and Nitrogen Reservoirs Nitrification 528, 542-544
NITREX Program, Europe 559
Nitrogen cycle, schematic diagram 523
Nitrogen fixation 526
Nitrogen reservoirs 523, 531, 532 Nitrogen saturation Nitrogen-15 (15N) see also Nitrate, 520 Niwot Ridge, Colorado, USA 558
Noble gases 459 North Temperate Lakes, Wisconsin, USA
478, 479, 627
Nuclides, definition 53 O2, d18O 539, 543, 544
Oak Ridge Reservation Experiment,
Tennessee, USA 311
Observed effects in precipitation 100
Occult precipitation 5, 99
Okavango Delta, Botswana 441, 442
Open system conditions 61-63
Osmotic potential 12
Ostracodes, use in climatic studies 799
Ottawa River, Canada 39, 235
Overland flow 5, 18, 31, 352, 368, 383
Oxygen-18 (18O) of nitrate 522, 538 Oxygen-18 (18O) of water 53 Oxygen-18 (18O) of sulfate 491 Packrat midden 785
Pahranagat Lake, Nevada, USA 801, 802
Paleoclimate indicators see also
Environmental change, 776 Paleoclimate studies see also
Environmental change, 777 Paleowaters 231
Pallette Lake, Wisconsin, USA
474, 475, 476
Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index
(PHDI) 800
Parameter identifiability 750
Partial area runoff 5
Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB, V-PDB)
56, 618
Penman equation 23
Penman-Monteith equation 24, 25
Perch Lake watershed, Ontario,
Canada 421-424
Periodic table, nuclide chart 54
Permafrost 129, 417 Permil (), definition 55
Peterborough, Ontario, Canada 125
Phreatic zone 5, 12
Piezometer 32, 361
Piston flow 207 Plants 165 Plastic 1-08 catchment, Ontario, Canada
409, 410, 411, 415
Plastic Lake, Ontario, Canada 493
Platte River, Colorado, USA 555
Playa lakes 440 pmC, percent modern Carbon,
defined 581
Point Reyes, California, USA 98
Pore-water mixing 37
Pores 4 Porosity, relation to saturation 13
Potential 12, 17 Potential evaporation 23 Pre-event water (old water) 5
Precipitation see also Atmospheric
deposition, Snow, and Throughfall, 87 Precipitation systems 89 Preferential flow 19
Pressure potential 12
Priestley-Taylor equation 24
Principle of similarity 21
Psychometric constant 21 Quality assurance 72 Quartermain Mountains, Antarctica 649
Queen's Lake, Canada 793, 794
Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru 778, 780 Radiation 20 Radioactive decay 54, 251 Radioactive equilibrium 680
Radiogenic nuclides 54, 56, 251 Radionuclide, defined 54
Radium isotopes see also
Uranium/Thorium series, 685, 709 Radium-226 (226Ra) 667, 705 Radon-222 (222Rn) 309, 667, 681, 688 Radon-226/Radon-228 (226Ra/228Ra)
709, 713, 715, 716, 718 Rainfall intensities 348
Rainfall runoff see also Hydrograph
separation, Mixing models, 319, 348 Random errors 6
Rapid Creek basin, South Dakota, USA
709-718, 519
Rayleigh equation 61, 100, 123 Recession limb 27
Recharge 38, 206 Red Bog, Ireland 797, 798
Redox reactions 643 Relative humidity 89
Relative humidity gradient 151
Representative elementary area 33
Reservoir mixing 340
Residence time 39 Respiration, effects on d18O 543, 544
Reynolds number 18
Rhone River, Switzerland 662
Richard's equation 14
Rio Grande de Manati, Puerto Rico,
USA, 691-696
Riparian forest communities 178, 179
Riparian zones 593
Rising limb 27
River Murray, Australia 178, 442, 444
River Ore, Sweden 666
Rivers 442-444 Rocky Mountains, USA 505
Runoff 26, 40
Runoff mechanisms see also Flowpaths,
and Hydrograph separation, 320 Salmon catchment, Australia
745, 746, 752
Sample collection 72, 113, 114, 398 San Pedro Valley, Arizona, USA 784
Sangamon River, Illinois, USA 554
Saturated absolute humidity 145
Saturation overland flow 5
Saturation vapor pressure 23
Scale in catchment hydrology 33 Seawater 186 Secondary storage 382
Secular equilibrium 680
Sediment source 666 Sediment transport 666 Sedimentation rate 655 Sensible heat 21
Septic tank effluents 532, 546 Sevilleta LTER, New Mexico, USA
788, 789, 791
SF6 see also Tracers, injected gas, 695 Sierra Nevada Mountains, California,
USA 189, 586, 587, 620
Silica 416 Silicon-32 (32Si) 257
Similarity principle 21
Skjervatjern catchment, Norway 514
Sleepers River, Vermont, USA 630-635
SMOW see also VSMOW, 56
Snow heat-conductance 394
Snow accumulation 120 Snow hydrology studies 132 Snow, water balance 128 Snowmelt 10, 119, 123, 128, 397-398 Snowmelt-dominated systems 391 Snowpack 121, 132 Sodium isotopes (22Na) 280
Soil carbon dioxide 783 Soil see also Carbon cycling, Sulfur,
Nitrogen, 142, 143, 147, 176, 535 Soil water 11, 137, 455 Solar radiation 21
Solid source mass spectrometry
see Mass spectrometry
Solute isotope biogeochemistry 77, 79 Sorption/desorption 530
Sparkling Lake, Wisconsin, USA
471, 628
Spiked materials, see Labeled materials
Spontaneous fission 258
Standard Mean Ocean Water see SMOW
Standards for isotopic analysis 56, 57 Stemflow 8
Storm types see Precipitation systems
Stormflow generation
see also Rainfall runoff, 27 Streamflow generation
see also Runoff mechanisms, 395
Stomatal regulation of water 173
Strontium-87 (87Sr) 254, 267, 482, 613 Stubbetorp, Sweden 425, 427
Sturgeon Falls, Ontario, Canada 305-307
Sublimation 5
Subsurface runoff 5
Subsurface stormflow 5
Sulfur-34 (34S) 132 ,489, 498 Sulfur-35 (35S) 131, 491
Surface runoff 6
Surprise Valley, California, USA 440
Svartberget Nedre, Sweden
122, 393, 402, 404, 405
Swiss Alps 668, 669
System response function
6, 180, 732, 741, 743 Temperature effects 102
Thermonuclear 3H see Tritium
Thorium isotopes see U/Th series
Thorium-232 (232Th) 680, 681, 684
Throughfall see also Precipitation, 6, 8 Throughflow 6
Time series approaches
see Mixing models
Toolik Lake, Alaska, USA 129-131
TOPMODEL 568
Topography 176 Trace element exchange 249, 250
Tracer studies 508 Tracers, injected gas see also Radon, 309 Transit time distribution 754-755
Translatory flow 6
Transmissivity feedback 32
Transpiration 6, 174, 447 Tree rings see also Plants, 785, 790 Trephina Creek, Australia 654
Tritium (3H) 110, 132, 257 Tritium/Helium-3 (3H/3He) 297, 457 Tropical rainforests 347
Trout Lake watershed, Wisconsin, USA
475, 478, 627, 628, 629
Truckee River, Nevada, USA 445
Tulum Valley, Argentina 235
Turnover time see Carbon cycling, 222 Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity
17, 207 Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA
779, 780
Uppsala, Sweden 419, 420
Uranium-234/Uranium-238
(234U/238U) 273 Uranium-235 (238U) 680, 681
Uranium/thorium series 255, 257, 679 Urban hydrology Use of isotopes in catchment research
35-39, 491 Vadose zone see also Soil water, 6, 12
Validation of models 726
Vapor diffusion 143
Vapor pressure 6, 21
Variable source area 6
Vegetation see also Plants, 165 Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) 56
Vienna precipitation data see IAEA
Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water
(VSMOW) 56
Volatilization of ammonia 529
Volumetric moisture content 14 Wadi Saoura, northern Sahara, Africa
448, 449
Wairau Plain, South Island,
New Zealand 236
Walker Branch watershed, Tennessee,
USA 695, 698, 703-706
Water age
see Groundwater modeling, 237
Water balance
see Water budget, 1, 7, 467 Water budget 468 Water freezing, isotope effects 58, 59
Water isotope hydrology 77, 78
Water table 12 Water use see Plants
Water vapor see also Atmospheric
water vapor, 106, 109
Watershed (catchment) 6
Wawona catchment, Yosemite National
Park, California, USA 265, 272, 273
Weathering reactions 253, 267, 611 Websites 78
WEBB (Water, Energy, and
Biogeochemical Budgets) Program, USA Weissfluhjock, Switzerland 129
Well data 364
West Bear Creek Valley watershed,
Tennessee, USA 311, 312
West Whitecourt, Alberta, Canada 511
Western Australia 746, 748, 749
Western United States precipitation 101
Wet zone 384 Wetlands see also Lakes, 593 White Mountains, California, USA 649
Williams Creek, Australia 752
Wilpena Pound, Flinders Ranges, South
Australia 653, 654
Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
673, 674 Xylem, isotopic composition
167, 179, 181, 185-188
Yellowstone National Park, USA 777
Yosemite National Park, USA
265, 272, 273
Yucca Mountains, Nevada, USA 438, 450


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