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Selected Isotope References Relevant to Studies of Human-Impacted Ecosystems


Alexander, B., Savarino, J., Kreutz, K.J. & Thiemens, M.H. (2004) Impact of preindustrial biomass-burning emissions on the oxidation pathways of tropospheric sulfur and nitrogen. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D08303, doi:10.1029/2003JD004218.

Ammann, M., Siegwolf, R., Pichlmayer, F., Suter, M. et al. (1999) Estimating the uptake of traffic-derived NO2 from N-15 abundance in Norway spruce needles. Oecologia, 118(2), 124-131.

Amundson, A., Austin, A. T., Schuur, E.A.G., Yoo, K. at el. (2003) Global patterns of the isotopic composition of soil and plant nitrogen. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17, 31-1 to 31-10.

Anderson, C. & Cabana, G. (2005) delta N-15 in riverine food webs: effects of N inputs from agricultural watersheds. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62, 333-340.

Anderson, C. & Cabana, G. (2006) Does d15N in river food webs reflect the intensity and origin of N loads from the watershed? Science of the Total Environment, 367, 968-978.

Angradi, T.R. (1993) Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of seston in a regulated rocky mountain river, USA. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management, 8, 251-270.

Angradi, T.R. (1994) Trophic linkages in the lower Colorado River:  multiple stable isotope evidence. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc., 13, 479-495.

Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water 36, 975– 982.

Aravena, R., Evans, M.L., Cherry, J.A., 1993. Stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen in sources identification of nitrate from septic systems. Ground Water 31, 180– 186.

Barth, S. (1998) Application of boron isotopes for tracing sources of anthropogenic contamination in groundwater. Water Res., 32, 685– 690.

Barth, S.R. (2000) Boron isotopic compositions of near-surface fluids: A tracer for identification of natural and anthropogenic contaminant sources. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 127, 49-60.

Barth, J.A.C., Veizer, J. & Mayer, B. (1998) Origin of particulate organic carbon in the upper St. Lawrence: isotopic constraints. Earth Planet. Sci. Let. 162, 111-121.

Basset, R.L., Buszka, P.M., Davidson, G.R., & Chong-Diaz, D. (1995) Identification of groundwater solute sources using boron isotopic composition. Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 2915–2922.

Barth, S. (1998) Application of boron isotopes for tracing sources of anthropogenic contamination in groundwater. Water Res., 32, 685– 690.

Barth, S.R. (2000) Boron isotopic compositions of near-surface fluids: A tracer for identification of natural and anthropogenic contaminant sources. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 127, 49-60.

Basset, R.L., Buszka, P.M., Davidson, G.R., & Chong-Diaz, D. (1995) Identification of groundwater solute sources using boron isotopic composition. Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 2915–2922.

Bates, A.L., Orem, W.H., Harvey, J.W., and Spiker, E.C. (2002) Tracing Sources of Sulfur in the Florida Everglades, Journal of Environmental Quality 31:287-299.

Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R., and Campbell, D.H., 2001a. Chemical and isotopic composition of organic and inorganic samples from the Mississippi River and its tributaries, 1997-98, USGS Water Resources Investigation Report 01-4095, 57 p.

Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R. et al. (2001b) Chemical and isotopic evidence of nitrogen transformation in the Mississippi River, 1997-98. Hydrological Processes, 15, 1285-1300.

Bedard-Haughn, A.K., Van Groenigen, J.-W. & Van Kessel, C. (2003) Tracing 15N through landscapes: potential uses and precautions. Journal of Hydrology. 272, 175-190.

Bol, R., Pflieger, C. 2002. Stable isotope (C-13, N-15 and S-34) analysis of the hair of modern humans and their domestic animals. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 16: 2195-2200.

Böttcher, J., Strebel, O., Voerkelius, S., Schmidt, H.L., 1990. Using stable isotope fractionation of nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate-oxygen for evaluation of microbial denitrification in a sandy aquifer. J. Hydrol. 114, 413-424.

Böhlke, J.K. 2002. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination, Hydrogeology Journal, 10:153–179.

Böhlke, J.K., and Denver, J.M., 1995. Combined use of ground-water dating, chemical, and isotopic analyses to resolve the history and fate of nitrate contamination in two agricultural watersheds, atlantic coastal plain, Maryland. Water Resour. Res., 31: 2319-2339.

Böhlke JK, Horan M (2000) Strontium isotope geochemistry of ground waters and streams affected by agriculture, Locust Grove, Maryland. Appl Geochem 15:599–609

Böhlke, J.K. Harvey, J.W., amd Voytek, M.A., 2004. Reach-scale isotope tracer experiment to quantify denitrification and related processes in a nitrate-rich stream, midcontinent United States, Limnol. Oceanography, 49: 821-838.

Böhlke, J.K., Smith, R.L., & Miller, D.N. (2006) Ammonium transport and reaction in contaminated groundwater:  Application of isotope tracers and isotope fractionation studies. Water Resources Research, 42.

Böttcher, J., Strebel, O., Voerkelius, S. & Schmidt, H.L. (1990) Using stable isotope fractionation of nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate-oxygen for evaluation of microbial denitrification in a sandy aquifer. J. Hydrol., 114, 413-424.

Bullen, T.D. & Kendall, C. (1998) Tracing of weathering reactions and water flowpaths: a multi-isotope approach, Chapter 18, In: C. Kendall & J.J. McDonnell (Eds.), Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 611-646.

Bullen, T.D. & Senior, L.A. (1992) Lithogenic Sr and anthropogenic Li in an urbanized stream basin: isotopic tracers of surface water-groundwater interaction. EOS Trans, AM Geophys Union 73, F130.

Bullen, T.D., Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Kendall, C., 1996, Kinetic and mineralogic controls on the evolution of groundwater chemistry and 87Sr/86Sr in a sandy silicate aquifer, northern Wisconsin, Geochem. Cosmoch. Acta, 60: 1807-1821.

Burns, D.A. & Kendall, C. (2002) Analysis of delta N-15 and delta O-18 to differentiate NO3- sources in runoff at two watersheds in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Water Resources Research, 38(5), 1051.

Casciotti, K.L.,  Sigman, D.M., Hastings, M.G., Bohlke, J.K. et al. (2002) Measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in seawater and freshwater using the denitrifier method, Anal. Chem., 74, 4905-12.

Cey, E.E., Rudolph, D.L., Aravena, R. & Parkin, R. (1999) Role of the riparian zone in controlling the distribution and fate of agricultural nitrogen near a small stream in southern Ontario. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 37, 45–67.

Chamberlain, C.P., Blum, J.D., Holmes, R.T., Feng, X. et al. (1997) The use of isotope tracers for identifying populations of migratory birds. Oecologia, 109, 132-141.

Chang, C.C.Y., Langston, J., Riggs, M., Campbell, D.H. et al. (1999) A method for nitrate collection for d15N and δ18O analysis from waters with low nitrate concentrations, Can. J. of Fish. and Aquat. Sci., 56, 1856-1864.

Chang, C.C.Y, Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., Battaglin, W.A., and Campbell, D.H.. 2002. Nitrate stable isotopes: tools for determining nitrate sources among different land uses in the Mississippi River Basin, Can. J. Fish, Aq. Sci. 59: 1874-85.

Christophersen, N, Neal, Colin and Hooper, R.P, 1993, Modeling environmental impacts: A challenge for the scientific method, Journal of Hydrology, 152, 1-12.

Christophersen, N, Neal, C, and Hooper, R.P, 1990, Modeling streamwater chemistry as a mixture of soil-water end members—A Step towards second generation acidification models, J. Hydrol, 116, 307-320.

Cifuentes, L.A., Fogel, M.F., Pennock, J.R. & Sharp, J. H. (1989) Biogeochemical factors that influence the stable nitrogen isotope ratio of dissolved ammonium in the Delaware Estuary. Geochimica et Cosmochimica, Acta 53, 2713-2721.

Clark, I.D. & Fritz, P. (1997) Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology. CRC Press.

Cleveland, C.C., Townsend, A.R., Schimel, D.S., Fisher, H. et al. (1999) Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in natural systems, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 623-646,

Cole, M.L., Valiela, I., Kroeger, K.D., Tomasky, G. L. et al. (2004) Assessment of a delta N-15 isotopic method to indicate anthropogenic eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems. J. Environ. Qual., 33, 124-132.

Cole, M.L., Kroeger, K. D., McClelland, J.W. & Valiela, I. (2006). Effects of watershed land use on nitrogen concentrations and d15N in groundwater. Biogeochemistry, 77(2): 199-215.

Cook, P. & Herczeg, A.L. (Eds.) (2000) Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Curt, M.D., et al. 2004. Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Synthetic and Organic Sources of Nitrate Water Contamination in Spain. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. Vol. 151. No. 1-4. pp.135-142.

Dawson, T.E., Mambelli, S., Plamboeck, A.H., Templer, P.H. et al. (2002) Stable isotopes in plant ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 507-559.

Davidson, G.R. & Basset, R.L. (1993) Application of boron isotopes for identifying contaminants such as fly ash leachate in groundwater. Environ. Sci. Technol., 27, 172– 176.

DeBruyn, A. M. H., and Rasmussen, J.B. 2002. Quantifying assimilation of sewage-derived organic matter by riverine benthos. Ecological applications 12(2): 511-520.

Dunkle, S.A., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., Phillips, PJ. et al. (1993) Chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2) as dating tools and hydrologic tracers in shallow ground water of the Delmarva Peninsula, Atlantic Coastal Plain, United States. Water Resour., 29, 3837–3860.

Durka, W., Schulze, E.D., Gebauer, G. & Voerkelius, S. (1994) Effects of forest decline on uptake and leaching of deposited nitrate determined from 15N and 18O measurements. Nature, 372, 765-767.

Dutton, A., Wilkinson, B.H., Welker, J.M., Bowen, G.J. et al. (2005) Spatial distribution and seasonal variation in 18O/16O of modern precipitation and river water across the conterminous USA. Hydrological Processes xx, xxx.

Eisenhut, S. & Heumann, K.G. (1997) Identification of ground water contaminations by landfills using precise boron isotope ratio measurements with negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Fresenius J Anal Chem, 359, 375–377

Elliott, E.M. & Brush, G.S. (2006) Sedimented organic nitrogen isotopes in freshwater wetlands record long-term changes in watershed nitrogen source and land use. Environmental Science & Technology, 26(40): 2910-2916.

Elliott, E.M., Kendall, C., Wankel, S.D., Burns, D.A. et al. (In review).  An isotopic tracer of stationary source NOx emissions across the Midwestern and Northeastern United States, submitted to ES&T.

Finlay, J.C., and Kendall, C., 2007. Stable isotope tracing of temporal and spatial variability in organic matter sources to freshwater ecosystems, Chapter 10, In: R.H. Michener and K. Lajtha (Eds.), Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science,  2nd edition, Blackwell Scientific Press (in press).

Flipse, H.P. and F.T. Bonner. 1985. Nitrogen Isotope Ratios in Nitrate in Groundwater Under Fertilizer Fields, Long Island, New York. Ground Water. Vol. 23. pp.59-67.

Flipse, W.J. Jr., et al. 1984. Sources of Nitrate in Ground Water in a Sewered Housing Development, Central Long Island, New York. Ground Water. Vol. 22. pp.418-426.

Fogg, G.E., Rolston, D.E., Decker, D.L., Louie, D.T., and Grismer, M.E., 1998. Spatial variation in nitrogen isotope values beneath nitrate contamination sources. Ground Water, 36: 418-426.

Ging, P.B., Lee, R.W., and Silva, S.R., 1996. Water chemistry of Shoal Creek and Waller Creek, Austin Texas, and potential sources of nitrate. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Rep. #96-4167.

Gruau, G., Legeas, M., Riou, C., Gallacier, E. et al.  (2005) The oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved anthropogenic phosphates: a new tool for eutrophication research?, Water Res., 39, 232-238.

Harrington, R.R., Kennedy, B.P, Chamberlain, C.P., Blum, J.D., et al. (1998) 15N enrichment in agricultural catchments:  Field patterns and applications to tracking Atlantic salmon. Salar).  Chemical Geology, 147, 281-294.

Hastings, M.G., Sigman, D.M. & Lipschultz, F. (2003) Isotopic evidence for source changes of nitrate in rain at Bermuda. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 108(D24), 4790.

Heaton, T.H.E., 1986. Isotopic studies of nitrogen pollution in the hydrosphere and atmosphere: a review. Chem. Geol. 59, 87– 102.

Hebert, C.E. and Wassenaar, L.I. 2001. Stable nitrogen isotopes in waterfowl feathers reflect agricultural land use in western Canada. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35: 3482-3487.

Hooper, R. P. and Christophersen, N, 1992, Predicting episodic acidification in the Southeastern United States: Combining a long-term acidification model and the end-member mixing concept, Water Resour. Res,  28, 1983-1990.

Hübner, H. (1986) Isotope effects of nitrogen in the soil and biosphere. In: P. Fritz & J.C. Fontes (Eds). Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, vol. 2b, The Terrestrial Environment, Elsevier, pp. 361-425.

Johnson, C.A., Mast, M.A. & Kester, C.L.(2001) Use of 17O/16O to trace atmospherically-deposited sulfate in surface waters: a case study in alpine watersheds in the Rocky Mountains. Geophysical Research Letters, 28(23), 4483-4486

Karr, et al. 2002. Nitrate Source Identification Using Delta 15 N in a Ground Water Plume Near an Intensive Swine Operation. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation. Vol. Spring 2002. pp.68-75.

Karr, JD, Showers, WJ, Jennings, GD 2003. Low-level nitrate export from confined dairy farming detected in North Carolina streams using δ15N.  Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 95:103-110.

Karr, J.D., Showers, W.J., Jr., Gilliam, J.W., and Andres, A.S., 2001. Tracing nitrate transport and environmental impact from intensive swine farming using delta Nitrogen-15, Journal of Environmental Quality. Vol. 30. pp.1163-1175.

Kendall, C., 1998. Tracing nitrogen sources and cycling in catchments, Chapter 16, In: C. Kendall and J.J. McDonnell (Eds.), Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 519-576.

Kendall, C., and McDonnell, J.J., (eds), 1998. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, Elsevier Science Publishers,  839 p., ( )

Kendall, C. and Caldwell, E.A., 1998. Fundamentals of isotope geochemistry, Chapter 2, In: C. Kendall and J.J. McDonnell (Eds.), Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 51-86.

Kendall, C., and Aravena, R., 2000. Nitrate isotopes in groundwater systems, Chapter 9, In: P. Cook and Herczeg, A.L. (Eds.), Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 261-297.

Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., and Kelly, V.J., 2001. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of particulate organic matter in four large river systems across the United States, NASQAN Special Issue, Hydrological Processes. 15:1301-1346.

Kendall, C., Elliott, E.M., and Wankel, S.D., 2007. Tracing anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to ecosystems, Chapter 12, In: R.H. Michener and K. Lajtha (Eds.), Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science,  2nd edition, Blackwell Scientific Press (in press).

Kiga, T., Watanabe, S., Yoshikawa, K., Asano, K. et al. (2000). Evaluation of NOx Formation in Pulverized Coal Firing by Use of Nitrogen Isotope Ratios. ASME 2000 International Joint Power Generation Conference, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, ASME.

Knights, JS, Zhao, FJ, Spiro, B, McGrath, SP. 2000. Long-term effects of land use and fertilizer treatments on sulfur cycling, JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, 29: 1867-1874.

Koba, K., Tokuchi, N., Wada, E., Nakajima, T. et al. (1997) Intermittent denitrification: the application of a 15N natural abundance method to a forested ecosystem. Geochim. Cosmochim., Acta 61, 5043– 5050.

Koerner, W., Dambrine, E., Dupouey, J.L. & Benoit, M. (1999) Delta N-15 of forest soil and understorey vegetation reflect the former agricultural land use, Oecologia, 121, 421-425.

Kohl, D.H., Shearer, G.B., and Commoner, B., 1971. Fertilizer nitrogen: contribution to nitrate in surface water in a corn belt watershed. Science, 174: 1331-1334.

Komor, SC, Anderson, HW.  1993.  Nitrogen isotopes as indicators of nitrate sources in Minnesota sand-plain aquifers.  Ground Water.  31(2):260-270.

Komor, S.C. (1997) Boron contents and isotopic compositions of hog manure, selected fertilizers, and water in Minnesota. J. Environ. Qual., 26, 1212–1222.

Kratzer, C.R., Dileanis, P.D., Zamora, C., Silva, S.R., Kendall, C., Bergamaschi, B.A., and Dahlgren, R.A. (2003). Sources and transport of nutrients, organic carbon, and chlorophyll-a in the San Joaquin River upstream of Vernalis, California, during summer and fall, 2000 and 2001, USGS WRI 03-4127. online:  .

Kreitler, C. W., 1975, Determining the source of nitrate in groundwater by nitrogen isotope studies: Rept. of Invest. #83, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, Bureau of Econ. Geol., 57 p.

Kreitler, C.W., 1979. Nitrogen-isotope ratio studies of soils and groundwater nitrate from alluvial fan aquifers in Texas. J. Hydrol. 42, 147– 170.

Kreitler, C.W., Jones, D.C., 1975. Natural soil nitrate: the cause of the nitrate contamination of ground water in runnels county, Texas. Ground Water 13, 53– 61.

Kreitler, CW and Browning, LA.  1983.  Nitrogen-isotope analysis of groundwater nitrate in carbonate aquifers:  natural sources versus human pollution.  Journal of Hydrology.  61:285-301.

Krouse, H.R. & Mayer, B. (2000) Sulphur and oxygen isotopes in sulphate. In: Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology (Cook, P.G., and Herczeg, A.L., eds.). Kluwer Academic Press, Boston, pp. 195-231.

Lake, J.L., McKinney, R.A., Osterman, F.A., Pruell, R.J. et al. (2001) Stable nitrogen isotopes as indicators of anthropogenic activities in small freshwater systems. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 58, 870–878.

Lehmann, M.F., Reichert, P., Bernasconi, S.M., Barbieri, A. et al. (2003) Modeling nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation during denitrification in a lacustrine redox-transition zone, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67, 2529-2542.

Lehmann, M.F., Sigman, D.M. & Berelson, W.M. (2004) Coupling the 15N/14N and 18O/16O of nitrate as a constraint on benthic nitrogen cycling. Mar. Chem., 88, 1–20.

Létolle, R. (1980) Nitrogen-15 in the natural environment, In: Fritz, P. and Fontes, J. Ch. (Eds) Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, vol. 1, Elsevier, New York, pp. 407-433.

Macko S A. & Estep M.L.F. (1984) Microbial alteration of stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter. Organic Chemistry, 6, 787-790.

Macko, S.A. & Ostrom, N.E. (1994) Pollution studies using nitrogen isotopes. In: K. Lajtha and R.M. Michener (Eds), Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science. Blackwell Scientific Publishers, Oxford, pp. 45-62.

Mariotti, A., and Letolle, R., 1977. Application de l’etude isotopique de l’azote en hydrologie et en hydrogeologie--analyse des resultats obtenus sur un exemple precis: Le Bassin de Melarchez (Seine-et-Marne, France). Jour. of Hydrol., 33: 157-172.

Mariotti, A., 1982. Apports de la geochimie organique a` la connaissance du cycle de l’azote. Doctoral thesis, University Pierre et Marie Curie, France.

Mariotti, A., 1994. Denitrification in situ dans les eaux souterraines, processus naturels ou provoques: une revue. Hydrogeology 3, 43–68.

Mariotti, A., Pierre, D., Vedy, J.C., Bruckert, S., and Guillemot, J., 1980. The abundance of natural nitrogen 15 in the organic matter of soils along an altitudinal gradient (Chablais, Haute Savoie, France). Catena, 7: 293-300.

Mariotti, A., Germon, J.C., Hubert, P., Kaiser, P. Letolle, R., Tardieux, A., and Tardieux P., 1981. Experimental determination of nitrogen kinetic isotope fractionation: some principles; illustration for the denitrification and nitrification processes. Plant Soil., 62: 413-430.

Mariotti, A., Germon, J.C., and Leclerc, A., 1982. Nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with the NO2- àN2O step of denitrification in soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 62: 227-241.

Mariotti, A., Landreau, A., Simon, B., 1988. 15N isotope biogeochemistry and natural denitrification process in groundwater: application to the chalk aquifer of northern France. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 52, 1869– 1878.

Mayer, B., Bollwerk, S.M., Mansfeldt, T., Hütter, B. et al. (2001) The oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate generated by nitrification in acid forest floors. Geochim. Cosmochim., Acta 65(16), 2743-2756.

Mayer, B., Boyer, E.W., Goodale, C., Jaworski, N.A. et al. (2002) Sources of nitrate in rivers draining sixteen watersheds in the northeastern US: Isotopic constraints, Biogeochemistry, 57, 171-197.

McClain, M.E., Boyer, E.W., Dent, C.L., Gergel, S.E. et al. (2003) Biogeochemical hot spots and hot moments at the interface of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Ecosystems, 6, 301–312.

McClelland, J.W., Valiela, I. and Michener, R.H. 1997. Nitrogen-stable isotope signatures in estuarine food webs : A record of increasing urbanisation in coastal watershed. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42: 930-937.

McClelland, J.W. and Valiela, I. 1998. Linking nitrogen in estuarine producers to land-derived sources. Limnol Oceanogr 43: 577-585.

McLaughlin, K., Silva, S., Kendall, C., Stuart-Williams, H., and Paytan, A. (2004), A precise method for the analysis of d18O of dissolve inorganic phosphate in seawater, Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 2: 202–212.

McLaughlin, K., C. Kendall, S. R. Silva, M. Young, and A. Paytan (2006), Phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for sources and cycling of phosphate in North San Francisco Bay, California, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G03003, doi:10.1029/2005JG000079.

McLaughlin, K., Paytan, A., Kendall, C., & Silva, S. (2006) Oxygen isotopes of phosphatic compounds—Application for marine particulate matter, sediments and soils. Marine Chemistry, 98:148– 155.

McMahon, P.B., and Böhlke, J.K., 1996. Denitrification and mixing in a stream-aquifer system: effects on nitrate loading to surface water, Jour. of Hydrol., 186: 105-128.

McMahon, P.B. & Böhlke, J.K. (2006) Regional patterns in the isotopic composition of natural and anthropogenic nitrate in groundwater, High Plains, USA, Environmental Science & Technology, 40 (9), 2965 -2970.

Mengis, M., Schiff, S.L., Harris, M., English, M.C. et al. (1999) Multiple geochemical and isotopic approaches for assessing ground water NO3- elimination in a riparian zone. Ground Water, 37, 448-457.

Michalski, G., T. Meixner, M. Fenn, L. Hernandez, A. Sirulnik, E. Allen and M. Thiemens,  Tracing atmospheric nitrate deposition in a complex semiarid ecosystem using 17O, Envir. Sci. Tech.,

Michalski, G.,  Savarino, J., Bohlke, J.K. & Thiemans, M. (2002) Determination of the total oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate and the calibration of a Del 17O nitrate reference material. Anal. Chem., 74, 4989-93.

Michalski, G., Meixner, T., Fenn, M., Hernandez, L. et al. (2004b). Tracing atmospheric nitrate deposition in a complex semiarid ecosystem using ∆17O. Environmental Science & Technology, 38(7): 2175-2181.

Michalski, G., Scott, Z., Kabiling, M. & Thiemens, M. H. (2003). First measurements and modeling of ∆17O in atmospheric nitrate. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(16).

Michel, R.L., Campbell, D., Clow, D. & Turk, J.T. (2000) Timescales for migration of atmospherically derived sulphate through an alpine/subalpine watershed, Loch Vale, Colorado. Water Resourc. Research, 36(1), 27-36.

Minagawa, M. 1992. Reconstruction of human diet from d13C and d15N in contemporary Japanese hair: a stochastic method for estimating multi-source contribution by double isotopic tracers. Applied Geochemistry 7:145-158.

Négrel, P, & Pauwels, H. (2004) Interaction between different groundwaters in Brittany catchments (France): Characterizing multiple sources through strontium- and sulphur isotope tracing, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 151, 261-285.

Négrel, P. &  Deschamps, P. (1996) Natural and anthropogenic budgets of a small watershed in the Massif Central (France): chemical and strontium isotopic characterization of water and sediments. Aquat. Geochem., 2, 1– 27.

Nielsen, L.P. (1992) Denitrification in sediment determined from nitrogen isotope pairing. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 86, 357-362.

Novak, M., Buzek, F., Harrison, A.F., Prechova, E. et al. (2003) Similarity between C,N and S stable isotope profiles in European spruce forest soils: implications for the use of d34S as tracer. Appl. Geochem.  18 (5), 765-779.

Nriagu, J.O. & Coker, R.D. (1978) Isotopic composition of sulphur in atmospheric precipitation around Sudbury Ontario, Nature, 274, 883-885.

Ostrom, N.E., Knoke, K.E., Hedin, L.O., Robertson, G.P. et al. (1998) Temporal trends in nitrogen isotope values of nitrate leaching from an agricultural soil. Chem. Geol., 146, 219-227.

Ostrom, N.E., Hedin, L.O., Von Fischer, J.C. & Robertson, G.P. (2002) Nitrogen transformations and NO3- removal at a soil-stream interface: A stable isotope approach. Ecological Applications, 12, 1027-1043.

Otero, N. (2004) Dades isotopiques (d34S, δ18O) i analisi estadistica aplicades a l’estudi contaminacio a les aigues superficials: el cas del Riu Llobregat, University of Barcelona, Spain. Ph.D. thesis, 283 p. (mostly English, part Catalonian).

Panno S.V., Hackley, K.C., Kelly, W.R. & Hwang, H.H. 2006 Isotopic evidence of nitrate sources and denitrification in the Mississippi River, Illinois. Journal of Environ. Qual.  35 (2): 495-504.

Parker, S.R., Poulson, S.R., Gammons, C.H. & DeGrandpre, M.D. (2005)  Biogeochemical controls on diel cycling of stable isotopes of dissolved O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon in the Big Hole River, Montana. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 7134-7140.

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